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The documents, tables and figures presented here in reversed chronological order can be freely used and reproduced providing that:


1. The source is duly acknowledged stating:

"JEC - Joint Research Centre-EUCAR-CONCAWE collaboration,
title of the study, version, year of release"

2. The tables and figures, if copied from the original documents, are not altered in any way.


April 2014

"Well-to-Tank Report” Version 4.a

JEC Well-To-Wheels Analysis

(Report EUR 26237 EN - 2014)


JEC Biofuels Programme
“EU renewable energy targets in 2020: Revised analysis of scenarios for transport fuels”

(Report EUR 26581 EN – 2014)

March 2014

JEC “WELL-to-WHEELS Report” Version 4.a

(Report EUR 26236 EN - 2014)

February 2014

"Effect of oxygenates in gasoline on fuel consumption and emissions in three Euro 4 passenger cars”

(Report EUR 26381 EN - 2014)

July 2013

"Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Future Automotive Fuels and Powertrains in the European Context” Version 4

(Report EUR 26028 EN - 2013)


October 2011

"Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Future Automotive Fuels and Powertrains in the European Context” Version 3c

(Report EUR 24952 EN - 2011)


May 2011

"EU Renewable energy targets in 2020: Analysis of scenarios for transport. JEC Biofuels Programme"

(Report EUR24770EN  - 2011)


July 2010

JEC Biofuels Programme - Standard Presentation

November 2008


Calculations of GHG and energy balances for a new WTW Version 3 have been recently completed. Main changes concern biofuels with modified and new pathways for ethanol, bio-diesel and biogas.

The full WTT and WTW reports are in preparation and will be posted here in due course but, because of the current interest in these pathways, JEC decided to publish the main results at this point. The following documents have been made available since November 2008:

Updated version of WTT Appendix 2 giving the updated energy and GHG balance of all pathways:  WTT App 2 v30 181108.pdf

Updated WTT Appendix 4, consisting of 5 Excel workbooks detailing the input data for all pathways

Input Data BIO 181108.xls

Input Data ELY 181108.xls

Input Data H&P 181108.xls

Input Data NG 181108.xls

Input Data OIL & COAL.xls

Updated TTW report and TTW App 1 with updates regarding Diesel technologies

V3.1 TTW Report 07102008.pdf

V3.1 TTW App 1 07102008.pdf


It is worth highlighting that JEC input data are relevant to the European Commission's Calculations of GHG emissions from biofuels

  • A spreadsheet (see BioF Action at the Institute of Energy) contains the subset of the current JEC input-data database, which is relevant to the calculation of default emissions for Biofuels, using the methodology specified by the European Commission in the draft EU Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. The methodology used to account for co-products is significantly different, leading to different energy and GHG balances.

  • The database of input data is updated occasionally, when we find more accurate or up-to-date figures. Therefore the default greenhouse gas savings calculated from the latest data may not correspond to those quoted in Commission’s working documents using a "snapshot" of the database at some past date.

  • Neither WTW results by JEC nor the default GHG savings in the RED Directive include land-use change

  • Increased demand for crops resulting from their use in Biofuels is likely to lead to an expansion of cropped area at the expense of other land uses, as well as to more intensive production on existing cropland. This can happen directly, by planting crops for Biofuels on pasture or natural land, or indirectly, by displacing food production ("Indirect Land Use Change). The change in land use and the intensification can be expected to increase GHG emissions. However, the scale of the increased emissions is very uncertain and controversial. Therefore JEC has not included them in any of the results presented here, which therefore represent only the "direct emissions" attributed to Biofuels production.



WTW Version 2C – March 2007

Version 2c of March 2007 replaces version 2b (May 2006) and corrects encountered errors:

  • Most significantly: changes in the cost data for the "ethanol from straw" pathway
  • Other minor corrections affect the GHG balance of biodiesel pathways and the cost data for the "ethanol from wood" and some hydrogen pathways

There are 10 documents available for download, offering various levels of information/data detail:

  • A slide pack summarises the main results and messages.
  • The Well-to-Wheels (WTW) report provides and integrated analysis of the complete pathways in terms of energy, GHG emissions, costs and potential availability of alternative fuels. Its two appendices cover in more detail:
    • Energy and greenhouse gas balances for all pathways
    • Cost data and calculations
  • The Well-to-Tank (WTT) report details the WTT portion of the pathways, including cost and availability estimates. There are three WTT appendices covering:
    • Individual processes and input data
    • Detailed energy and GHG balances for individual WTT pathways
    • Energy requirement and GHG emissions for gasoline and diesel fuel production
    • The Tank-to-Wheels (TTW) report describes the vehicle configurations and performance. The appendix gives details on vehicles retail price estimation.


Well-to-Wheels Master Presentation


Well-to-Wheels Reports





Well-to-Tank Reports






Tank-to-Wheels Reports




WTW Version 2b - May 2006: “Availability and Cost of Biomass for Road Fuels in EU”

The second edition of the well-to-wheels study was released in May 2006.  Compared with the first issue of the study, increased attention has been given to biofuel options.

Consequently, it was felt valuable to gain input and discussion from other expert groups, including authors of other recent studies, to compare information, test the reliability of the assumptions on the JEC study, and find new information to reduce the existing areas of uncertainty.

Enlosed the proceedings of the Biofuels Workshop held in May 2006.



 JEC Ethanol Programme

Effects of Gasoline Vapour Pressure and Ethanol Content on Evaporative Emissions from Modern Cars (2007)